Foodborne Illnesses / Cyclospora /

Cyclospora References

1. Abanyie F, et al. (2015). 2013 multistate outbreaks of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections associated with fresh produce: focus on the Texas investigations. Epidemiol Infect. 143(16):3451-8.

2. Almeria S, Cinar HN, Dubey JP. (2019). Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cyclosporiasis: An Update. Microorganisms. 7(9):317.

3. Casillas SM, Hall RL, Herwaldt BL. (2019). Cyclosporiasis Surveillance - United States, 2011-2015. MMWR. 68(3):1-16.

4. "Cyclosporiasis - Disease." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 11 May 2018. Available at:

5. "Cyclosporiasis - Biology." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 Jun. 2018. Available at:;

6. "Cyclosporiasis - Resources for Health Professionals." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 21 Oct. 2020. Available at:;

7. "Cyclosporiasis FAQs." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 17 Sept. 2020. Available at:;

8. Colley DG. (1996). Widespread Foodborne Cyclosporiasis Outbreaks Present Major Challenges. Emerg Infect Dis. 2(4):354-6.

9. "Bad Bug Book (Second Edition)." Food and Drug Administration, 2012. Available at:;

10. Giangaspero A, Gasser RB. (2019). Human cyclosporiasis. Lancet Infect Dis. 19(7):e226-e236.

11. Hedberg CW, Osterholm MT. (2016). Foodborne outbreaks caused by Cyclospora: the message is more important than the messenger. Epidemiol Infect. 144(9):1803-6.

12. Herwaldt BL. (2000). Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review, focusing on the outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in the 1990s. Clin Infect Dis. 31(4):1040-57.

13. Hoffmann S, Batz MB, and Morris Jr JG. (2012). Annual cost of illness and quality-adjusted life year losses in the United States due to 14 foodborne pathogens. J Food Prot. 75(7):1292-302.

14. "Economic Burden of Major Foodborne Illnesses Acquired in the United States." U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, May 2015. Available at:;

15. Huang P, et al. (1995). The first reported outbreak of diarrheal illness associated with Cyclospora in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 123(6):409-14.

16. Lopez AS, et al. (2001). Outbreak of cyclosporiasis associated with basil in Missouri in 1999. Clin Infect Dis. 32(7):1010-7.

17. Ortega YR, Sterling CR, Gilman RH, Cama VA, and DÍaz F. (1993). Cyclospora Species--a new protozoan pathogen of humans. N Engl J Med. 328(18):1308-12.

18. Pal M. (2010). Cyclospora cayetanensis: An emerging food borne pathogen. J Nat Hist. 6(1):9-11.

19. "Outbreaks of Foodborne Illness Associated with Common Berries, 1983 through 2019." University of Florida IFAS Extension, Nov. 2013. Available at:;

20. Scallan E, et al. (2011). Foodborne Illness Acquired in the United States--Major Pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 17(1):7-15.

21. Soave R. (1996). Cyclospora: An Overview. Clin Infect Dis. 23(3):429-35.

22. "Domestically Acquired Cases of Cyclosporiasis — United States, May-August 2020." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 Sept. 2020. Available at:;

23. Ortega YR, Sanchez R. (2010). Update on Cyclospora cayetanensis, a Food-Borne and Waterborne Parasite. Clin Microbiol Rev. 23(1):218-34.