Foodborne Illnesses / Botulism /

Botulism References

  1. Sobel J, Rao AK. (2017). Making the Best of the Evidence: Toward National Clinical Guidelines for Botulism. Clin Infect Dis. 66(Supp 1):S1-S3.
  2. Sobel J, et al. (2004). Foodborne Botulism in the United States, 1990–2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 10(9):1606-11.
  3. “Botulism.” National Organization for Rare Disorders, available at:
  4. Jay JM, Loessner MJ, Golden DA. Modern Food Microbiology, 7th Edition. Springer US, 2005.
  5. Bleck TP, Hodowanec A. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 2. Elsevier Inc, 2014.
  6. Jeffery LA, Karim S. Botulism. [Updated 2019 Nov 30]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available at:
  7. Shapiro RL, Hatheway C, Swerdlow DL. (1998). Botulism in the United States: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Review. Ann Intern Med. 129(3):221-8.
  8. “Bad Bug Book (Second Edition).” U.S. Food & Drug Administration, available at:
  9. Mann JM, Martin S, Hoffman R, Marrazzo S. (1981). Patient recovery from type A botulism: morbidity assessment following a large outbreak. Am J Public Health. 71(3): 266–9.
  10. Wilcox PG, Morrison NJ, Pardy RL. (1990). Recovery of the Ventilatory and Upper Airway Muscles and Exercise Performance After Type A Botulism. Chest. 98(3):620-6.
  11. Cohen FL, et al. (1988). Physical and Psychosocial Health Status 3 Years after Catastrophic Illness–Botulism. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 9(4):387-98.
  12. Hoecker JL. (2018). “How can I protect my baby from infant botulism?” Available at:
  13. Gottlieb SL, et al. (2007). Long-Term Outcomes of 217 Botulism Cases in the Republic of Georgia. Clin Infect Dis. 45(2):174-80.
  14. Lund B, Baird-Parker AC, Gould GW. Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food. Springer US, 2000.
  15. Clostridium botulinum Outbreak Associated with Jalapeno Cheese Sauce Served at Valley Oak Food and Fuel in Walnut Grove, California - April 2017, Final Report.” California Department of Public Health, 2018.
  16. St Louis ME, et al. (1988). Botulism From Chopped Garlic: Delayed Recognition of a Major Outbreak. Ann Intern Med. 108(3):363-8.
  17. Morse DL, Pickard LK, Guzewich JJ, Devine BD, Shayegani M. (1990). Garlic-in-oil Associated Botulism: Episode Leads to Product Modification. Am J Public Health. 80(11):1372-3.
  18. “Botulism Fact Sheet.” California Department of Public Health.
  19. Harris RA, Anniballi F, Austin JW. (2020). Adult Intestinal Toxemia Botulism. Toxins (Basel). 12(2):81.
  20. Hobbs RJ, Thomas CA, Halliwell J, Gwenin CD. (2019). Rapid Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins—A Review. Toxins (Basel). 11(7):418.