E. coli litigation is all about causation (did a particular food product cause the illness) and damages (what are your past, present and future costs).
The E. coli that are responsible for the numerous reports of contaminated foods and beverages are those that produce Shiga toxin, so called because the toxin is virtually identical to that produced by Shigella dysenteria type 1. The best-known and most notorious E. coli bacteria that produce Shiga toxin is E. coli O157:H7.
Although foods of bovine origin (ground beef) are the most common cause of both outbreaks and sporadic cases of E. coliO157:H7 infections, outbreaks of illnesses have been linked to a wide variety of food items. For example, produce has been the source of substantial numbers of outbreak-related E. coli O157:H7 infections since at least 1991. Other vehicles for outbreaks include unpasteurized juices, yogurt, dried salami, mayonnaise, raw milk, game meats, hazelnuts, and raw cookie dough.
The incubation period—that is, the time from exposure to the onset of symptoms—in outbreaks is usually reported as 3 to 4 days but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. Infection can occur in people of all ages but is most common in children.
As the infection progresses, diarrhea becomes watery and then may become grossly bloody; that is, bloody to the naked eye. E. coli symptoms also may include vomiting and fever, although fever is an uncommon symptom.
On rare occasions, E. coli infection can cause bowel necrosis (tissue death) and perforation without progressing to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)—a complication of E. coli infection that is now recognized as the most common cause of acute kidney failure in infants and young children. In most infected individuals, symptoms of a Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infection last about a week and resolve without any long-term problems. Antibiotics do not improve the illness, and some medical researchers believe that these medications can increase the risk of developing HUS. Therefore, apart from supportive care, such as close attention to hydration and nutrition, there is no specific therapy to halt E. coli symptoms. The recent finding that E. coli O157:H7 initially speeds up blood coagulation may lead to future medical therapies that could forestall the most serious consequences. Most individuals who do not develop HUS recover within two weeks.